Effectiveness of Compounded Bioidentical Hormone Replacement Therapy: An Observational Cohort Study
Bioidentical Hormone Replacement Therapy (BHRT) is believed it to be a safer and equally effective alternative to Conventional Hormone Therapy for the relief of menopausal symptoms; however, data are needed to support these claims. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of compounded BHRT provided in six community pharmacies.
Progestins and progesterone in hormone replacement therapy and the risk of breast cancer
Controlled studies and most observational studies published over the last 5 years suggest that the addition of synthetic progestins to estrogen in hormone replacement therapy (HRT), particularly in continuous-combined regimen, increases the breast cancer (BC) risk compared to estrogen alone. By contrast, a recent study suggests that the addition of natural progesterone in cyclic regimens does not affect BC risk. This finding is consistent with in vivo data suggesting that progesterone does not have a detrimental effect on breast tissue. The increased BC risk found with the addition of synthetic progestins to estrogen could be due to the regimen and/or the kind of progestin used. Continuous-combined regimen inhibits the sloughing of mammary epithelium that occurs after progesterone withdrawal in a cyclic regimen. More importantly, the progestins used (medroxyprogesterone acetate and 19-Nortestosterone-derivatives) are endowed with some non-progesterone-like effects, which can potentiate the proliferative action of estrogens. Particularly relevant seem to be the metabolic and hepatocellular effects (decreased insulin sensitivity, increased levels and activity of insulin-like growth factor-I, and decreased levels of SHBG), which contrast the opposite effects induced by oral estrogen.
Venous thromboembolism risk in relation to use of different types of postmenopausal hormone therapy in a large prospective study
Summary. Background: Current use of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and the formulations used may affect risk. Conclusions: The risk of VTE varied considerably by HT formulation, being greatest in users of oral estrogen-progestin HT, especially formulations containing medroxyprogesterone acetate.
The bioidentical hormone debate: are bioidentical hormones (estradiol, estriol, and progesterone) safer or more efficacious than commonly used synthetic versions in hormone replacement therapy?
BACKGROUND:The use of bioidentical hormones, including progesterone, estradiol, and estriol, in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has sparked intense debate. Of special concern is their relative safety compared with traditional synthetic and animal-derived versions, such as conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), and other synthetic progestins. Proponents for bioidentical hormones claim that they are safer than comparable synthetic and nonhuman versions of HRT. Yet according to the US Food and Drug Administration and The Endocrine Society, there is little or no evidence to support claims that bioidentical hormones are safer or more effective.